Supratochlear and supraorbital veins from the scalp unite near the medial angle of the eye to form the angular vein.

Course

It passes downwards and backwards and becomes the facial vein. It passes behind the facial artery.

It crosses the anteroinferior angle of the masseter muscle. It pierces the deep fascia. It runs superficial to the submandibular gland.

Termination

It terminates by joining the anterior branch of retro mandibular vein to form the common facial vein. The common facial vein terminates into the internal jugular vein. Facial vein does not have valves.

Anatomy

Dangerous area of the face: Upper lip, tip and philtrum of the nose and alae of the nose forms the ‘dangerous area of the face.’

The facial vein communicates with pterygoid venous plexus via deep facial vein. The pterygoid venous plexus communicates with the cavernous sinus via the emissary veins.Hence infection from the face especially from the dangerous area of the face spreads intracranially and causes meningitis.

Contraction of the facial muscles aid spread of this infection against centre of gravity through the facial vein. The superior ophthalmic vein communicates with the facial vein at the level of its commencement. This also serves as an emissary vein.

Retromandibular Vein

The superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein unite to form the retromandibular vein. It passes within the parotid gland and then it divides into anterior and posterior branches.

The anterior branch joins with the facial vein to form the common facial vein.The posterior branch joins with the posterior auricular vein to form the external jugular vein.