The intervertebral joints are created

1. Between the bodies of the vertebrae, and.

2. Between the articular processes of the vertebra.

Joints Between The Bodies Of The Vertebrae.

All these are secondary cartilaginous joint. The inferior and superior surfaces of the adjacent vertebral bodies are covered by thin plates of hyaline cartilages, which in turn are linked by fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc. The disk is composed of an outer rim by fibrocartilage– the annulus fibrosusand a central core of gelatinous substance– the nucleus pulposus. These joints are held together by anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments of the vertebral column.

 

Joints Between The Articular Processes.

The joints between the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are referred to as facet (zygapophysial) joints. They’re plane type of synovial joints and let gliding movements. The zygapophysial joints of thoracic vertebrae are directed vertically. This restricts flexion and extension, but eases rotation. The rotation is considerably eased since the articular process of thoracic vertebrae are set on an arc. The ligaments are joint capsule, which encloses the articular surfaces.

The accessory ligaments are:.

1. ligaments flava between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae,.

2. supraspinous.

3. infraspinous.

4. intertransverse ligaments.

Movements.

The movements of flexion and extension are best enabled in the cervical and the lumbar regions, while the rotatory movements are best viewed in the thoracic region.