The diffusion of the substance can happen in any case, i.e. extracellular fluid (ECF) to intracellular fluid (ICF) or vice versa relying on the dominating environment The elements which impact the net rate of diffusion in the wanted direction are:

  1. Cell membrane permeability.

    Permeability of the cell membrane (P) is the significant determining element for the net diffusion, which in turn relies on the list below elements:

  • Thickness of the membrane. The diffusion is inversely proportional to the thickness of the cell membrane.
  • Lipid solubility. Diffusion is straight proportional to the lipid solubility of the substance.
  • Circulation of protein channels in the cell membrane. The rate of diffusion of lipid insoluble substance is straight proportional to the variety of channels per unit area of the cell membrane.
  • Temperature. Rate of diffusion increases with boost in the temperature This is since of the increased movement of the molecules and ions of the solution with boost in temperature.
  • Size of the molecules Rate of basic diffusion is inversely proportional to the size of molecules.
  • Area of the membrane. The net diffusion of the substance is straight proportional to the overall area of the membrane.
  1. Concentration gradient.
    The basic diffusion is straight proportional to the concentration gradient however, the facilitated diffusion, nevertheless, has particular constraints beyond particular level of concentration gradient.
  2. Electrical potential gradient.
    Electrical potential across the cell membrane is another crucial element which impacts the diffusion of ions across the cell membrane. As displayed in Fig. 1.3-7B, the concentrations of negative ions are the very same on both sides of the membrane however, there is an electrical gradient across the cell membrane since of positive charge outside and negative charge inside the membrane. The positive charge draws in the negative ions, whereas the negative charge repels them. For that reason, net diffusion takes place from inside to outdoors till the concentration gradient developed balances the electrical gradient.
  3. Pressure gradient.
    It has actually been observed that the increased quantities of energy are readily available to trigger net movements of molecules from the high pressure side to the low pressure side. The pressure gradient result is shown in Figure above, which shows that high pressure established by the piston on one side of the cell membrane triggers higher number of molecules to strike the membrane resulting net diffusion to the opposite.