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23 02, 2017

Maintenance of Blood Plasma Composition

By | February 23rd, 2017|Physiology|0 Comments

The composition and volume of blood plasma are affected by diet, cellular metabolism, and urine production. The intake of food and liquids provides the body with water and a variety of nutrients, including minerals, that are absorbed into the blood. [...]

23 02, 2017

Urinary Acid-Base Regulation

By | February 23rd, 2017|Physiology|0 Comments

Renal acid/base excretion complements pulmonary CO2 elimination to regulate body acid-base balance. Normally, there is a net acid production by the body, and urine pH is slightly acidic to keep the body in pH balance. Acids excreted in the urine [...]

23 02, 2017

Urinary Concentration and Dilution

By | February 23rd, 2017|Physiology|0 Comments

The balance of water and solute reabsorption rates determines urine osmolarity. Water reabsorption is driven by an osmotic gradient, particularly evident as filtrate passes through tubule segments of the hypertonic renal medulla. Reabsorption and secretion characteristics are specific for each [...]

23 02, 2017

Loop of Henle

By | February 23rd, 2017|Physiology|0 Comments

The loop of Henle carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the renal medulla and back to the renal cortex. There are three functional divisions: the thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, and thick ascending limb. The thin descending limb [...]

23 02, 2017

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

By | February 23rd, 2017|Physiology|0 Comments

  The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs 65% of the filtered water, Na+, Cl-, and K+. The epithelia of the proximal tubule have "leaky" tight junctions and can maintain only a small transepithelial membrane potential. Most of the energy consumed by [...]

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